This research investigates the first 15 years of East Germany’s transition from an econometric perspective. Primary interest of the investigations lies with the potential interactions between the overall economic situation and the hospitals as well all the hospital treated patients. Economic and legislative discussions of hospital efficiency are heavily based on economic indicators. Common indicators are compared for their usefulness in describing hospital efforts and costs. By incorporating data of one of the West German federal states – Rhineland-Palatinate – distinctions can be made between transition and non-transition related changes. Panel data regression models are applied to yearly hospital and district economic data. Their interpretation is supported by descriptive statistics, graphs and choropleth maps. The hospitals of both East and West Germany are heavily influenced by the changes of the political and economic environment – most particularly by the transition from the budget-based financing to the lump compensation (DRG) based reimbursement. The data reveals that the year 2000 marks both the beginning of hospital physicians’ and managers’ discussion of the upcoming DRG system as well as the beginning of major changes in diagnosing (or diagnose coding) – these changes are discussed. Above all other it is the financing particularities of the German health care system that East Germany’s hospitals minimized the gap to their West German counterparts quite quickly with regard to performance and costs; microeconomic differences between districts have only minor influence on the hospitals.